Computing is an operation that involves the processing of knowledge by making use of computer fundamentals. To be ready to use a computer and perform computation, we first must remember of the various components that are present in it and understand how these components could also be accustomed serve our purposes. during this chapter, we'll briefly discuss the various hardware components of a computer. we'll also discuss methods to develop programs using which we are able to achieve our objective to unravel problems and perform various computational activities.


A computer is an device which will be accustomed perform various computations involving arithmetic and logical operations.  shows the most important components of a computer.

As seen within the figure, the key components in an exceedingly computer are the central processing unit (CPU), Input device(s) output devices(s), and memory. These components interact with one another using buses, shown within the figure

Central Processing Unit

The CPU is that the unit within which all processing activities occur. CPU is additionally called the Brain Of the pc. The CPU may be a classic example of a really large scale integrated (VLSI) electronic circuit that consists of the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), the control unit (CU), and a few registers.  The ALU contains circuits using which various arithmetic and logical operations is also executed. These circuits include adders (for addition), subtractors (for subtraction comparators (for comparison of operands), etc. The CU, also called the brain of a computer, is that the unit that's answerable for generating control signals. These control signals control the working of the assorted components within a computer. The registers present inside the CPU could also be considered to be a group of high-speed storage devices meant to function remembering for the ALU. a number of these registers are assigned the task of holding special data or instructions. Such registers are called special-purpose registers, whereas others are referred to as general-purpose registers. The units present inside the CPU interact with one another through an enclosed bus. Signals generated by the CU also control the activities of the varied components within the CPU. but the inner bus, three other buses also interface with the CPU. The control bus control signals generated by the CU to the memory and every one the peripherals. The address bus carries an address to locate a word within the memory. Finally, the info bus is employed to hold data and knowledge to and from between the components of the com addition to the units mentioned up to now, modern-day CPUs are equipped with high-speed, on-chip memory units called the cache memory.

Input Devices

Input devices are those through which users are allowed to computer file and other instructions to the pc. the foremost popular choices for input devices are the keyboard and also the mouse. Other examples include scanners, readers, etc from the user through mechanical means, like depressing of keys during a keyboard to enter some data or moving the mouse around on a surface to locate an edge.

Output Devices

Just as input devices are wont to convey messages to the pc, output devices are utilized by the pc to convey messages back to the users. the foremost common output device that just about all computers have is that the monitor. The monitor is employed to display the results of computations, messages, etc. Other samples of output devices are printers, speakers, plotters, etc. The input and output devices are sometimes called peripheral devices. These auxiliary devices is also connected to a computer and used. they're auxiliary because their existence within a computer isn't mandatory unlike the CPU or the memory.


A memory/storage unit is that the component of a computer that serves data storage purposes.  Volatility refers to the duration of your time or the conditions under which data is stored within the memory. supported these characteristic features, the computer's memory could also be categorized into differing kinds. shows the classification of the computer's memory.

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