Build and Fix Model

 Build and Fix Model

 It adopts casual approach for software development.

In this approach, developer doesn't collect enough details of client's requirements. He jus asks him few basic necessary things and starts developing the software, supported his knowledge and assumptions. 

 For all the problems and procedures, to which client doesn't agree, developer makes modifications and changes within the software and tries to match client's requirements.

Such unsystematic and unplanned changes make the software unreliable and inefficient This model doesn't work for giant systems but novice independent programmers use very often for the little software that they develop.

The Waterfall Model

Most commonly used model is that the Waterfall model. If comprises of following 5 phases:

(i) Requirement analysis and specification phase

(ii)Design Phase

(iii) Implementation and unit testing phase

(iv) Integration and system testing phase

(vi) Operation and maintenance phase

This model is straightforward to know and reinforce the notion of define before design and style before coding.

Following are the issues of waterfall model:

(i) it's difficult to define all the necessities of the project at the initial stage

(ii) This model isn't suitable for the changes that appear within the later stages

(iii) A working version can't be shown to the client, to administer the texture of the software, until it's complete.

(iv) It doesn't work well for the big projects

(v)It adopts sequential approach while real projects are seldom sequential


Interactive Enhancement Model

 But in each phase, many cycles of interaction with customer happen. At the tip of every cycle the outcomes of the previous cycle are modified and refined. 

In the first phase of this model, developers and customers specify all requirements and SRS document is created.

After finalizing the necessities, developer and customer, together prioritize these requirements. Developers develop, test and implement software in keeping with the priorities in one or more cycles.

Prototyping Model

In this model actual user's involvement is important, right from the need phase till implementation phase. It ensures the delivery of the usable software. 

A quick prototype is initially incorporate this model and given to the user. he's employed thereon and identifies all difficulties and problems. 

This model comprises of following four phases:

(i) Requirement planning phase (requirements understood)

(ii) User description phase (user and developer still discuss and refine the requirements)

(iii) Construction phase (design, coding and testing done)

(iv) Cut over phase (acceptance test conducted)

Spiral Model

The models mentioned above, don't deal sufficiently with the uncertainties that are a part of any software project. for instance, prices may escalate in middle of the project. 

However, if risks and their management is created a part of the software project then all persons involved in it'll be ready for it and can take corrective actions, as mentioned within the documents. 

Barry Boehm recognized this issue and included "project risk" as a compulsory phase of software development life cycle. This model was given the name Spiral model.

The Spiral model suggests that every phase of software development should include following four activities:

(i) Planning

(ii) Risk analysis

(iii) Development

(iv) Assessment Planning

This model offers big selection of options to accommodate good features of other models.

Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE)

The process of performing software engineering activities through computer, using dedicated software is named computer aided software engineering.

These days, there are many CASE software available within the market. Using these software following activities is performed:

(i) Application prototyping.

(ii)ER diagramming.

(iii) Data flow-charting.

(iv) Structural chart formation.

(v) Generation of decision tables and trees.

CASE software also provide tools for generating prototypes supported software


16) Convergence occurs when firms and industries that were once independent become mutually keen about one another. One prominent type of convergence that has taken place in recent years involves computer and communications industries. 

 With the recognition and advancements within the field of networking, convergence took a giant leap ahead. Internet popularity brought both the industries so close that now their survival has become almost captivated with one another. One cannot survive without the opposite. 

The convergence of computing with communication has led to an explosion in networked application, and irrevocably adds communications as a significant new application arena for computing PC to PC phone calls, PC to phone calls. vocalisation Internet Phones (VOIP) are a results of this convergence.

Communication technology provides access to information instantly, no matter its geographical location. initially instance, this fact appears quite simple, but it's its roots, deep into this state of affairs in present time. 

As a results of this, such applications have acquire existence, which weren't even in our dreams, a while back. as an example, email, e-chatting, e-commerce applications with e payments are the fact of today. it's due to this convergence that folks are using plastic money rather than real folding money. 

 Video conferencing has crushed geographical boundaries and has added a replacement experience into applications.

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